时间地点：2011年10月19日，印度班加罗尔J N Tata多功能礼堂
演讲题目：Understanding historical wood utilization - Ideas for the future?
摘要：Much of the knowledge of the utilization and the properties of wood as raw material began to get lost with the onset of the industrialisation. As a result old traditions of handicraft-men –important intangible cultural properties – are disappearing nowadays. This loss of knowledge was described for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century by a folklorist (Blau 1917) working in Bohemia. He mentioned that this knowledge starts to retreat to higher altitudes of forest lands, where the forests are the main focus of life.
Blau (1917) described, that within a single farming house 12 different wood species were found in Carinthia and even 27 in Bohemia. These findings underline the high diversity of wood utilization in former times.
By studying old books the description of properties and applications of various wood species can be found. The reasons for the selection of a species are usually not given. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we started to study historical wood utilization at collections of wooden artefacts like buildings, tools, machines, household appliances, furniture and so on. The aim is to set up a database of wooden goods where a description of the artefact itself, its geographic region, age and the wood species are linked. Groups of related applications mainly defined by different requirements are formed. These requirements can be directly linked to wood properties.
First results show, that within the small region of the mountain Schneeberg, 32 different wood species including nine shrubs (mainly for highly specialised products as the rungs of a ladder) were in use.
Understanding historical wood utilization will help to use our forests more efficiently – primarily in times of shortage of wood as raw material.
关键词：Historical wood utilization, wood quality, wood identification
Michael Grabner, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, BOKU Vienna, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
时间地点：2011年10月19日，印度班加罗尔J N Tata多功能礼堂
摘要： Wood Culture is an interdisciplinary science area which provides a better understanding of the use and social aspects of wood from a cultural perspective. The study of wood culture can provide positive publicity for wood as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material. In the United States (US), there has been a rich history of forest products use since the early settlers came in the 17th century. Forest products have been a major strategic asset and are critical to the social, economic, and ecological well being of the United States. US history includes trees removal for farmland and significant production of timber products, such as log homes, train trestles, fences, and bridges. The management and procurement of wood products was significantly impacted by the formation of the US Forest Service in 1905 under President Teddy Roosevelt. A rich history of wood culture in art, literature, poetry, and drama developed as a result of the importance of forest products to the US economy.
The US is a wood oriented country, ranking third of all countries in volume of standing forest timber. Abundant forest resources and prudent forest management have allowed U.S. industry to make wood the single largest material resource of industrial production. Approximately 330 million metric tons of wood is harvested annually in the United States, which is by far the world’s largest industrial timber-producing nation. The focus of this presentation is on the rich history of wood culture in the US and the use of forest products in the development of the country.
Howard Rosen博士长期从事木材科学与森林产品研究，曾任职于美国农业部林务局，研究方向是阔叶材的加工利用、木材干燥、木材物理和森林生物能源。之后，他加 入了美国农业部林务局林业服务研究和开发小组执行科学任务，为美国林产品的技术发展政策提供科学技术支持。Howard Rosen博士于2006年退休，现在为美国农业部林务局的志愿研究员。他积极参与许多专业技术团体，同时也是国际林业研究组织联盟（IUFRO）木文化 工作小组的主席（5.10.01）。
报告摘要：International Wood Culture Society (IWCS) is a non-profit and non-governmental organization, dedicated to the research, education and promotion of wood culture. IWCS promotes the concept "Wood is Good" and proceeds three primary projects-Knowledge Project, the Experience Project, and the Life Project. These projects have been carried out worldwide and their reports are released as free and open access resources for the purposes of increasing the public awareness of the important relationship between wood, human and environment, and encouraging the public participation in sharing the knowledge of wood and experience of wood use in life.
IWCS is currently in a continuing effort to establish an interdisciplinary platform for the exchange of ideas concerning the foundation, application and practices of wood culture.
In order to develop wood culture as a subject of study and method of inquiry for the next stage, multidisciplinary discussions are invited to raise the current issues and new methodologies for shaping the academic landscape and to yield systematic and integral approaches for both research and everyday life. In so doing, IWCS aims to bring to light that studying wood culture across boundaries opens up new possibilities for a better understanding of wood, human and environment, together moving forward to a sustainable future.
Harvey Green博士现任美国东北大学（马萨诸塞州，波士顿）历史系教授。他的主要研究领域是美国文化史和物质文化。在他的四本著作和多篇文章中探讨了美国的家 庭生活、医药和健康历史以及运动史。最近他开始着重研究人类文明中的木文化史。Harvey Green博士毕业于美国罗切斯特大学，在罗格斯大学（新泽西州立大学）获硕士学位和博士学位。
报告摘要：Why does wood persist in our lives? I believe it does so because wood has meaning beyond necessity, practicality and cost. Wood persists because it is a cultural material as well as a cultured material, with a long and deep history of human affect. Its symbolic presence is embodied in everything from the cross to the crossbow and the temple to the toothpick. People still build with it even though it is sometimes cheaper and more efficient to build with other materials. Wooden places of worship such as Norwegian stave churches and Maori marai, and long-surviving parts of wooden towns are valued and carefully preserved. These places are not necessarily where something “historically important” happened, but valued in large part because they are made of wood.
I believe it is the cultural power of wood-and by extension the forest-that endows it with qualities that seem to us somehow more historical and hence more real. Some conservationists argue that wood's organic qualities indicate that it should be superseded as a material and fuel, but these associations are what make wood more desirable. That these distinctions are in fact not quite so easily drawn is beside the point.