森林文化之旅——山茶花之美

森林文化之旅——山茶花之美

Apr 16 2012

  楚雄紫溪山茶花名冠中外,每年都有不少佳宾前来朝圣。片中除了介绍紫溪山茶花,包括花芯大小、花瓣数量、自然变异之原生植物等,也会带观众一览树龄高达六百年以上的茶花与其它自然变异原生茶花。

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紫溪山森林公园(一)——滇中常绿阔叶林

紫溪山森林公园(一)——滇中常绿阔叶林

Apr 12 2012

  这片天然原始林,又称为滇中山地常绿阔叶林,属于混交林的一种,但主体仍是阔叶林。令人关注的是,这片天然原始林上的"梣木",是喜马拉雅山地,甚至整个亚洲山地,最重要的水源保护树。

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森林文化之旅——西双版纳热带植物园(五)

森林文化之旅——西双版纳热带植物园(五)

Mar 20 2012

  这个原始热带林已有植物超过十万种,这些野生原始林的植物都是国内的原生物种,来自于广西、海南,以及西双版纳等地。

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森林文化之旅——云南地方农林业

森林文化之旅——云南地方农林业

Mar 01 2012

  中国西双版纳地方农林业,植物植披以及动植物相关生态体系等。我们现在看到的是当地傣族人发明的樟茶混交林,福建砍樟树取樟脑,这里是用樟树的树叶取樟脑,如此所种出来的茶叶不仅有樟树的香味,且樟树叶又可驱虫,所以当地居民不使用农药,极符合生态系统的平衡发展。 编辑:刘柯珍

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日本岐阜木材市场拍卖会

日本岐阜木材市场拍卖会

Feb 09 2012

  日本是由6852个小岛组成的岛国,其中四个最大型的岛屿-北海道、本州岛、四国、九州岛占全部岛屿的97%。坐落于日本正中央的岐阜市,掌握东南西 北的交通要道。俗谚说控制岐阜,你便控制全日本。由于木材体积庞大,运送不便。因此岐阜市木材市场建在国家正中央便能够方便国人前来买卖取材。     岐阜县铭木市场建于1947年,半百年来,铭木协同组合一直致力于拓展木材市场的影响力与规模。这对促进市长交易的运作有正面影响,买家可以有更多选项木材可以比较。卖家也可以因为买家多,竞标价格也会提高,两方得利。    因为日本社会环境十分注重生活质量,国人也很遵守法律,因此在住宅区制造噪音是不被接受的。地处郊区工业用地,铭木市场选于此便可以避免如此纷争,此 外,铭木市场临近各个主要干道,运送木材方便,离J®车站或地铁也不远,买家要前来参加拍卖会也很容易,交通便利也是岐阜铭木市场的一大特色。   我们可以从地图上看到岐阜县铭木协同组合有附近有两条河川,长良川与木鲁川。百年来铭木协同组合一直都是仰赖距离较近的长良川将木材从上游运送到下游,直至今日,人们也依赖长良川的河床来浸泡木材,以便长时间保存。        国际木文化学会于六月13、14日来到岐阜县铭木市场,参加为其两天的岐阜铭青会特别市(青年会所举办的铭木拍卖会)。从外观看去,木材市场最左边有个 办公室,负责处理各活动联络、推广与文书等业务,顺时钟下去分别是一号仓库、二号仓库与三号仓库,排成一个马蹄形,马蹄中间则摆满板材,开口朝向我们这些 远洋前来参观的旅客。     籏政广先生带我们到三号木材仓库里看看他们的宝藏   岐阜县铭木协同组合理事长籏政广亲切地向我们详细介绍市场的历史与发展,籏政广先生表示,岐阜就是以木材为本繁荣起来的城市。此次岐阜铭木青年会所举办的铭木拍卖会,因为有许多当地产的珍贵木材,别的地方看不到,只有这边才能取材,所以特别吸引各地慕名而来的商人。       这些木材纹理特别漂亮,如丝绸一般闪闪发亮。而这些高级木材不管是心材还是边材,大多都是以制作桌子为主。如果家里有个这样的桌子,就可以显示主人的品味,十分气派。       第一天的铭木青年市拍卖主题是板材,就是放仓库已经裁切好固定大小规模的木材材料,可以用来制作家具或是工艺品,如桌子或是柱子等。   每年岐阜县铭木市场拍卖会约估都会有500-700人,这些人都是经过协会认可,必须要加入全国任一木材协会,成为会员之一;或经过内部成员推荐等,并缴交30万日元的保证金后才能具备参加拍卖会的资格。     当今天结束,眼前的这些约一千口(木材拍卖计算单位,一份拍卖的木材商品不一定只有一片,有时后是以一捆或是一栏为计算物,我们皆称为一口)的拍卖物,预估可以卖出70%-80%左右。     拍卖主持人穿着铭青会亮青色的制服主持会场,众人踊跃投标的场景。    一般而言,拍卖的过程就是每个人逐次喊价,所喊价钱最高的买主得标(买到商品)。不过,在这里的拍卖方式则有些许不同,铭木市场会有其抑扬顿挫、连续不 断的音韵来炒热拍卖气氛,价钱也是由主持人所喊,每个买家都会有顶帽子,上面有每个人的编号,代表具有买卖木材资格。只要买家一点头,主持人就会将价格继 续往上喊,这样不仅可以增加喊价的速度,工作人员也可以藉由帽沿上的编号记录哪位买家得标。   第二天的贩卖重点则是原木。   一般而言,原木的购买条件会比板材高,因为原木是完全没有经过裁切过的木头,木材内部好坏难以预测,通常需要经过长时间的经验累积,风险较高。此外,木材需要长时间自然干燥,否则干燥不全的木材容易弯曲变形,所以原木的不确定性会比板材高的多。       这位从东京来的先生,买了这颗原木,这棵原木上面有立个牌子,表示将会捐赠部份贩卖收入给日本311地震灾民。       买了这颗原木之后,先除树皮,这些树皮下面都有许多虫子在啃食这颗原木,幸好这位先生所买的原木只有树皮被啃蚀,木材仍十分健康,经由询问,我们知道这颗木材之后会拿来做成桌子与切割剩下作为板材收藏或转卖。       在办公室前面,我们也看到有个"木魂碑",这是由伊势神宫徳川宗敬大宫司所题的字,从1971年7月所建,代表当地居民对于木材的感谢,每年都会举办一次木魂祭,以感谢与祈求这一年也能够国泰民安、事业顺利。       我们在这次的拍卖会上也看到日本人对于木材的爱惜与尊敬,这点从我们看到的木材形状就可以发现,这次的铭木什么奇形怪状都有,经过讨论方知,因位树材珍贵,一丁点的材料都不可以浪费,因此裁锯下来的木材才会形状千变万化,方式因应各个木材可用的材料所订。     青年会成员为了让这次拍卖会更加热闹,想了几个方法, 将会场最名贵的木材留到最后,以大家留到最后一刻,或是特别举办抽选会,炒热活动。图上为有些木材上面有黄色抽选券,可以参加抽选。图下为主持人主持抽奖活动。        最后,我们访问到岐阜县铭青会会长高田佳威,希望跟他聊聊这次活动的心得,高田佳威会长表示,铭青会两三年以前,他们就希望可以将这个活动越办越大,希 望如此的活动,可以让逐渐萧条的木材业找回热情,现在岐阜市的名气也越来越大,大家都觉得很开心,也希望未来也有更多人能够喜爱木材并了解木材之美。     采访翻译:杨 萍 采访编辑:王逸宁 摄影:姚嘉茵  

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森林文化之旅——曼养广寨神林(二)

森林文化之旅——曼养广寨神林(二)

Feb 02 2012

  曼养广寨神林以傣族人居住为主,目前仍使用傣语,部分学校以双语(傣语、普通话)教学。十多年前的傣族村庄与今日并无太大差异,但原本的木材砖瓦已被现代水泥取代。    传统傣族遗迹房屋,以杆栏式建筑为主,上方住人,下方养牲畜。挑选过的木材防蛀防腐,白蚁不食。因为鸡吃蚂蚁,所以养鸡能够防蚁;养水牛跟猪,能够让蚊 子叮牛猪,来防止人得到疟疾。从前傣族人家的伙堂在中间,共有四十八根柱子支撑总结构,木材都是特别挑选过,皆以榫头相接。   寨神林村落人家以傣族为主,傣语与泰语约百分之八十相通。当地居民使用的木材是从二十多种选出五六种优良的来使用,例如云南石梓便是其一。   文字:王逸宁 编辑:刘柯珍

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森林文化之旅——曼养广寨神林(一)

森林文化之旅——曼养广寨神林(一)

Jan 17 2012

  曼养广寨神林以傣族人居住为主,目前仍使用傣语,部分学校以双语(傣语、普通话)教学。十多年前的傣族村庄与今日并无太大差异,但原本的木材砖瓦已被现代水泥取代。    传统傣族遗迹房屋,以杆栏式建筑为主,上方住人,下方养牲畜。挑选过的木材防蛀防腐,白蚁不食。因为鸡吃蚂蚁,所以养鸡能够防蚁;养水牛跟猪,能够让蚊 子叮牛猪,来防止人得到疟疾。从前傣族人家的伙堂在中间,共有四十八根柱子支撑总结构,木材都是特别挑选过,皆以榫头相接。   寨神林村落人家以傣族为主,傣语与泰语约百分之八十相通。当地居民使用的木材是从二十多种选出五六种优良的来使用,例如云南石梓便是其一。     文字:王逸宁 编辑:胡小霞      

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森林文化之旅——曼飞龙佛塔(1)

森林文化之旅——曼飞龙佛塔(1)

Jan 06 2012

  曼飞龙佛塔,傣族又称为"塔糯",即为"笋塔"之意。 此塔始建于傣历565年(公元1204年,南宋泰和四年),砖石结构,属八角金刚宝座式群塔,由大小九塔组成。 是一座具有较高艺术价值和浓郁民族特色的古建筑。   曼飞龙佛塔与其旁边的佛教寺庙是云南当地少数民族(傣族)所信奉的佛教建筑群,属于小乘佛教。 其特色在于寺庙旁所种植的树种与花,都是依据小乘佛教的信仰所选择栽植的。傣族人世世代代所供奉的佛祖都有其代表的佛教圣树。   文字:王逸宁 编辑:刘柯珍

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森林文化之旅——曼飞龙佛塔(2)

森林文化之旅——曼飞龙佛塔(2)

Jan 06 2012

  曼飞龙佛塔,傣族又称为"塔糯",即为"笋塔"之意。 此塔始建于傣历565年(公元1204年,南宋泰和四年),砖石结构,属八角金刚宝座式群塔,由大小九塔组成。 是一座具有较高艺术价值和浓郁民族特色的古建筑。   曼飞龙佛塔与其旁边的佛教寺庙是云南当地少数民族(傣族)所信奉的佛教建筑群,属于小乘佛教。 其特色在于寺庙旁所种植的树种与花,都是依据小乘佛教的信仰所选择栽植的。傣族人世世代代所供奉的佛祖都有其代表的佛教圣树。   文字:王逸宁 编辑:刘柯珍

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Practicing Forestry has opened the world for me - Interview with David Cassells

Practicing Forestry has opened the world for me - Interview with David Cassells

Dec 02 2011

Quest: David Cassells, Senior adviser on forestry and climate change with The Nature Conservancy Reporter: Su Jinling Interview Date: June 2011 Interview Venue: Shanghai, China Brief interview contents Su Jinling: From your bio, we know that you are an Australian forester. So you were born in Australia? David Cassells: I was brought up in northeast tropical part of Australia. I grew up in the tropical rain forest region. I always work with tropical forest, so many of the issues are similar to those in developing countries who also have tropical forests. Su Jinling: How do you choose forestry or timber industry as your career? David Cassells: I knew a few people were foresters. When I went to school, some of my best friends' fathers were forester. They moved around to many interesting area. My mother was also very keen naturalist. She took me, as a young boy, to many national parks. Those days in Australia just like China now. (More detailed conversation in the video) Su Jinling: About regional community forest, do we call it community forest or social forest? David Cassells: Community forestry is really the development of social forestry. In the 1970s, there was a famous British forester by the name of Jack Westoby. He was a forester director of FAO. He influenced the development of international forestry very broadly. (More detailed conversation in the video) Su Jinling: You mentioned about the training center, Is there any program of the training center in China?  David Cassells: RECOFTC was formed 25 years ago. A number of the countries signed RECOFTC charter to bring it into existence. China was one of those countries. Most of the other countries were from Mekong, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos. (More detailed conversation in the video) Su Jinling: What is the challenge related to the community forestry in the developing countries? David Cassells: I think the real challenge is livelihood. The only result they have is the forest. For their substances livelihood the forest has been a very good provider. Jack Westoby had a famous saying. He called the forestry is poor man’s overcoat. The poor often don’t own land. They relied on forest for hunting. They get additional products, non-timber products, like mushrooms, things like that. Forestry has been the key results for their simple survival. Can the forestry also be the key result in the social economic developing for the improvement of their livelihood? I spent the last two weeks traveling around China…… Su Jinling: In the Asian pacific countries, the community forestry has been developed. Any good models? David Cassells: The country that comes most to mind is Nepal. Their community forestry took very early, because the government of the day very early recognized that basically you need the forestry to sustain community. People who were farmers depended on forest for firewood for cooking, to maintain their animals. Without their animals they have nothing to plough the fields. Also it was the dung from the animals to provide the fertilizer for the fields. So the forests were really what sustained the agriculture. So very pragmatically they took a decision, I guess 40 years ago, that they had to devolve the right to manage forest responsibility back to the local communities. That has been very successful. Nepal, in 1970s, seems the worst case of tropical deforestation…… Su Jinling: What is the most precious value the local people laid upon?  David Cassells: The most important value is subsistence support. At next stage, the development, the ability of forest to develop cash crops becomes important. I worked with communities in Papua New Guinea. The communities, working with the Nature Conservancy, have developed land use plans that set aside some areas because of their particular conservation value. And very interesting that people in the community said to me: can you tell us or demonstrate to us how this can help us in the modern world? We have all the traditional values…… Introduction of David Cassells David Cassells is the Director of The Nature Conservancy’s Asia Pacific Region Forest Program and Chief of Party for the Responsible Asia Forestry and Trade (RAFT) Program. He is an Australian forester with more than 30 years management and research experience in tropical forest management and planning. He started his career with more than a decade of forest management and research experience in the wet tropical rain forest region of north-eastern Australia. David has subsequently had wide international experience and has held leadership positions with the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO); the Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development; and the World Bank. He was the Chairperson of the IUCN Forest Conservation Programme Advisory Group from October 1996 – July 2005. From 2001-2005, he was a Co-Chair of the World Bank-WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use. He currently serves on the Boards of Forest Trends, the Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development, the Tropical Forest Foundation and is the Chair of the Board of Trustees for the Thailand-based Regional Community Forest Training Centre (RECOFTC). In January 2000, he was featured by the UK based People and the Planet Magazine as one of five “Millennium Trailblazers” in global environmental management in its special Millennium Issue on “The Ecology of Hope”.   Wording: Su Jinling Editor: Wang Peiwen

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